The 7 elements of design are designed to create a balanced interior scheme so that the finished look is aesthetically pleasing, as well as functional. After all, design science is also an art.
'Space' refers to the distance between furniture and objects and their proportions within a room. Balancing the room depends on using both 'positive' and 'negative' space just right.
Positive space is where the objects in room : such as a sofa and armchairs -are positioned, while negative space refers to the gaps in between, and includes circulation space for navigating through the room, as well as the areas left open to avoid the feeling of clutter.
A right balance between the two is necessary for a room to feel well laid-out.one with more negative space will feel more spacious, larger and perhaps bigger- but too much negative space will make a room feel under-furnished and detached. On the other hand too much positive space can make the room feel crowded and tough to navigate.
Wondering how to balance it right? Well...the beauty is very much in the eye of the beholder-if you find a space more cluttered, using more negative space will suit you. However, as a general rule, thoroughfares in a room should be at-least 1m wide, while gap between, say, a coffee table be about 50cm for a comfortable movement and use.
Structural features and the room's furnishings can create lines that greatly influence the feel of the space, they can be used to bring the focus to a particular point. A dynamic combination of horizontal and vertical lines can be used too.
Horizontal lines, such as those of tables, bring a sense of stability to an interior. They also make a room feel wider. The vertical lines of a room come from windows and doors or maybe a tall fireplace. They on the other hand make the room feel taller. Choosing a tall piece of furniture leads the eye upwards and heightens the room. In any scheme a balance is necessary between the horizontal and vertical setup.
Dynamic lines like zigzags, curves and diagonals are created by features such as a staircase, diagonally laid tiles. They are eye catching and they induce a scheme with energy.
Form is outline of the room, and it also includes objects within it like furniture, artwork and accessories. These shapes can be geometric- those that having precise lines and angles- or natural- not just the irregular shapes but curvaceous pieces.
The Key to balance here is again use of natural shapes that bring softness to an interior unlike strong geometric shapes.
Majority of interiors use both natural daylight and artificial illumination. While the quantity and quality of daylight may vary throughout the year, it is worth remembering that it can be adjusted using drapery and window coverings.
A room can be made more lit by using hanging mirrors, borrowing it from other rooms, and again, with a window treatment, although in this case it allows maximum light to reach the room.
Artificial light from the room's ambient or background lighting, accent lighting that draws attention to objects or features in a room, and the task light that for example in a kitchen makes it safe for food preparation, an office desk bright enough for working, living room should be bright enough for comfortable reading.
Dimmer switches can be used to achieve desired level of lighting, while the choice of light fixtures and fittings will contribute to the room's appearance.
Color is important aspect , not because it creates a mood in a room , but because it has power to make a room feel larger, lighter , or cosier. It goes without saying that color selected should compliment the room's use with more restful shades for bedrooms, for example ,or energetic hues for a home office.
Natural light or artificial light affect the color's properties, so success in using it means considering this before making a selection
Texture refers to how it feels, of course, but also how it looks, and every thing in a room scheme from furniture and floor coverings to fabrics and decorative accessories contribute to the selection of texture in the room. Mixing textures and contrasting them adds to depth and interest to the room scheme.
Pattern is another element that adds life and interest in a room's interior; just like texture. Pattern might come from a wallpaper, soft furnishings, rugs and artwork. The style of the pattern can be floral, geometric, abstract, or any other design that is in harmony with the overall style of the scheme.
The scale of the pattern with respect to the space , and the area which it covers so that interior doesn't look overdone, is also very important.